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Turkey

General Information

Admission to the OSCE: 25 June 1973

Policing overview: The body generally responsible for policing in Turkey is the Ministry of Internal Affairs which carries out policing functions through the General Directorate of the Police (a national and armed civil force) and the gendarmerie and coast guards which are also national and armed military police forces.


General Directorate of Security

1. General information
2. Functions and missions 
3. Structure and organization
4. Staff data 
5. Education / Training

1. General information
The central police force operates under the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the form of the General Directorate of Security. In the provinces, it operates under the command of governors (vali) and district governors (kaymakam). Civil administrators (mülki amir) are responsible for the security and wellbeing of towns and districts. According to legislation and practices, the central and regional structure of the police force is defined as a law enforcement unit that operates within the network of the civil administration system and carries out its duties under the command and control of the civi authority. Town governors and heads of district administrations supervise the force.

2. Functions and missions
In general, the police’s realm of responsibility is geographically located inside the municipal boundaries in Turkey. In accordance with the “Law on Duties and Powers of the Police”, the duties of the Police are to:

  • provide public order;
  • provide security of persons and properties;
  • protect personal property and public order;
  • detect, arrest and transfer both offenders and case evidence to the appropriate judicial bodies;
  • perform duties apart from the administrative such as judicial assigned by laws, regulations and government acts;
  • prevent crime as a prerequisite in order to protect public safety and order.

The police force also has political duties such as the protection of the integrity of the state and the preservation of constitutional order. Furthermore, the police force has administrative functions, including preventive, protective and assistance duties. The Turkish Police respect human rights in the fulfillment of all its duties, in conformity with the principles of rule of law. Within this framework, utmost importance has been placed on training and education. The qualification of the police force has improved a great deal by raising the level of education and sending a large number of personnel abroad for training.

Considering that traffic services have a direct effect on the economy and social life, the police force have greatly intensified monitoring efforts in recent years to maintain the safe flow of traffic and to prevent traffic accidents on city and intercity roads. A Traffic Services Department, a Highways Traffic Security Council and a Supreme Board for Highway Security have been established in order to deal with the traffic problems more effectively.

3. Structure and organization
The Turkish National Police is composed of:

  • Central organization
  • Provincial organization (81 Directorates of Provincial Police, 751 Police Directorates of Towns affiliated to Provinces, 22 Border Gates Police Directorates, 18 Free-Zone Police Stations, 834 Police Stations in 81 Provinces)

To view an organization chart, please follow the link in the Attachments section.

4. Staff data
The Personnel of the General Directorate of Security is composed of police officers, police chiefs (in different ranks), and civil servants.

5. Education / Training
The Turkish Police receive two categories of training: One of which is in-service training that is provided by the Department of Education operating directly under the General Directorate of Security; whereas pre-profession training is provided by the Police Academy.
The Police Academy offers five different training programs:

  • Undergraduate Education (Police Professional High Schools; 2 years);
  • Bachelor’s Degree Education (Security Sciences Institute; 4 years);
  • Postgraduate Training (Security Sciences Institute; four semesters);
  • Training at State Higher Educational Institutions in Ankara;
  • Management Training (Security Sciences Institute; Higher Level Management Training for Third Degree Chief Superintendents and in-service Mid-Level Management Training for Chief Inspectors.

Two Police Colleges – in Ankara and Bursa, also operate directly under the General Directorate of Security. There are other educational institutions that give expert in-service training, such as the Turkish International Academy Against Drugs and Organized Crime (TADOC) and the Crime Investigation and Research Education Centre (SASEM).

Attachments

  Turkish National Police [English] (33.64 Kb) Turkish National Police [English] (Format: PDF) http://polis.osce.org/countries/view?item_id=74&attach_id=170
Organization chart
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Gendarmerie

1. General information
2. Functions and missions
3. Structure and organization
4. Staff data
5. Education / Training

1. General information
The Gendarmerie of the Republic of Turkey, which is responsible for the maintenance of safety and public order as well as carrying out other duties assigned by laws and regulations, is an armed security and law enforcement force of military nature. The General Command of Gendarmerie is subordinate to the Ministry of Internal Affairs with regard to safety and public order duties.

2. Functions and missions
In general, the Gendarmerie’s realm of responsibility is geographically beyond the police duty zone; i.e. places located outside the municipal boundaries. The Gendarmerie’s functions fall into four main areas:

  • Administrative: prevent crime as a prerequisite to protecting civic safety and public order; prevention, detection of investigation of smuggling; and guarding the Department of Corrections;
  • Judicial: Detect, arrest and transfer offenders and case evidence to the appropriate judicial bodies;
  • Military: Perform duties as assigned by the General Staff in keeping with the military laws and regulations of the nation;
  • Others: Perform duties apart from the administrative, judicial and military, assigned by the laws, regulations and by government acts.

3. Structure and organization
The Organization of The General Command of Gendarmerie is composed of:

  • The General Command of Gendarmerie Headquarters and its attached units;
  • Security Units;
  • Border Units;
  • Schools, Training and Educational Units;
  • Administrative and Logistics Support Units.

For more detailed information please view the organization chart in the Attachments section.

4. Staff data
Personnel of the General Command of Gendarmerie is composed of officers, non-commissioned officers, specialized gendarmes, specialized sergeants, corporals, privates and civil servants.

5. Education / Training
The Gendarmerie Schools are the educational institutions where gendarmerie officers who have graduated from the Army Academy, non-commissioned officers promoted to officer’s ranks, and other specialists are trained.

Attachments

  Gendarmerie - Turkey [English] (94.51 Kb) Gendarmerie - Turkey [English] http://polis.osce.org/countries/view?item_id=74&attach_id=163
Organization chart of the General Command of The Gendarmerie
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Coast Guard Command

1. General information
2. Functions and missions
3. Structure and organization
4. Staff data
5. Education / Training

1. General Information
Turkish Coast Guard Command is a law enforcement force, established on July 09, 1982 by law numbered 2692. The Coast Guard functions under the control of Ministry of Interior. Turkish Coast Guard performs its missions in territorial waters, inland waters, exclusive economic zone and other areas mentioned in its establishment Law numbered 2692, national and international laws.

2. Functions and missions
The missions, Coast Guard Command was charged with by Law numbered 2692, are:

  • To protect and provide the security of coasts and territorial waters,
  • To provide the safety of life and property at sea,
  • To prevent all kinds of smuggling carried out by way of sea,
  • To perform search and rescue operations within the search and rescue area of Turkey, in conformity with the International Search and Rescue Convention and National Search and Rescue Regulations,
  • To prevent maritime pollution.

3. Structure and Organization
The Turkish Coast Guard Command Headquarters is located in Ankara. The Headquarters consists of four Subordinate Regional Commands, namely, The Black Sea, Marmara and The Turkish Straits, Aegean and Mediterranean, one Training and Education Command, one Air Command, one Coast Guard Supply Centre Command and six Coast Guard Group Commands subordinate to Regional Commands.

4. Staff Data
Personnel of the Turkish Coast Guard Command is composed of officers, noncommissioned officers, civil servants, contracted sergeants and soldiers.

5. Education / Training
After graduation from the Naval Academy/Turkish Navy Noncommissioned Officer Vocational School of Higher Education, Coast Guard officers and noncommissioned officers obtain their proficiency skills on Coast Guard procedures while attending the Coast Guard Basic Training Course provided by Coast Guard Training and Education Center.

The civil servants are assigned to the branches that are not handled in the military schools and are procured among the graduates of the related university departments. These servants are subject to the training at the offices, where they perform within the Coast Guard Training and Education Command.

The soldiers who receive great success in their military service on boat/vessel and who are well-skilled in their profession may be employed as contracted sergeants in their own branches after a series of exams. These contracted sergeants are employed in the coast guard offices as professional specialists and their contracts are reviewed and updated bi-yearly.

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Directorate General of Customs Enforcement

1. General information
2. Functions and missions
3. Structure and organization

1. General information
The Directorate General of Customs Enforcement is one of four main service units of the Undersecretariat of Customs. In 1993 the Undersecretariat was re-organized and affiliated with the Office of the Prime Minister.

2. Functions and missions
The Directorate General of Customs Enforcement is responsible for judicial enforcement proceedings and is tasked to fight illegal trafficking of commodities and human beings, narcotics, psychotropic drugs and their precursors, cigarettes and alcohol, nuclear, biological and chemical substances, dual use items, arms and ammunition, fuel, historical articles, and items falling under CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species).

3. Structure and organization
18 Customs Enforcement Units for Anti-smuggling, Intelligence and Narcotics, affiliated to the Directorate General of Customs Enforcement within the Undersecretariat of Customs are organized in a hierarchical manner to combat all types of smuggling events. To view an organization chart of the Undersecretariat, please follow the link in the Attachments section.

Attachments

  Undersecretariat of Customs - Turkey [English] (59.80 Kb) Undersecretariat of Customs - Turkey [English] http://polis.osce.org/countries/view?item_id=74&attach_id=165
Organization Chart of the Turkish Undersecretariat of Customs
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National Intelligence Organization

1. General information
2. Functions and missions
3. Structure and organization
4. Staff data
5. Education / Training

1. General information
The National Intelligence Organization (MIT for: Milli Istihbarat Teskilati) has an important role with regards to its duties and responsibilities within the state structure of the Republic of Turkey. The legislature has established the legal responsibilities of the MIT and its importance within the state structure by subordinating it directly to the Prime Minister who is responsible for the conduct of the general politics of the country.

2. Functions and missions
The MIT was entrusted with the duty to:

  • collect nationwide security intelligence on existing and potential threats from internal and external sources;
  • communicate the collected intelligence to the President, the Prime Minister, the Chief of General Staff, the Secretary General of the National Security Council and meet the requirements and needs concerning the planning of national security policy of these authorities;
  • counteract intelligence

The MIT members, when carrying out their duties specified in the Establishment Law, can use the rights and authorities of the police in protecting the installations and members of the MIT and in the field of counter-espionage.

3. Structure and organization
The Undersecretary of the Turkish National Intelligence Organization is appointed with the approval of the President after agreement with the National Security Council and proposal by the Prime Minister. He is accountable only to the Prime Minister. For detailed information on the structure, please view the organization chart in the Attachments section.

4. Staff data
In general terms, the staff of the MIT is comprised of personnel working in the main service units, auxiliary service and support units. For more detailed information regarding the level of education, age groups and the gender ratio, please view the document in the Attachments section.

5. Education / Training
Applicants who have passed the entrance examination of the National Intelligence Organization are provided with a basic training lasting for 23-24 weeks at the MIT Training Center in the course of their probational period.

Attachments

  National Intelligence Organization - Turkey [English] (35.93 Kb) National Intelligence Organization - Turkey [English] http://polis.osce.org/countries/view?item_id=74&attach_id=166
Organization chart
  Staff data - National Intelligence Organization, Turkey [English] (26.67 Kb) Staff data - National Intelligence Organization, Turkey [English] (Format: PDF) http://polis.osce.org/countries/view?item_id=74&attach_id=167
Information on the level of education, age groups and gender ratio.
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Explanatory note

Turkey's position regarding the representation of Cyprus:

Turkey formally entered a reservation regarding the representation of Cyprus at the CSCE session on 31 July 1975. The same reservation has been entered at subsequent meetings within the framework of the CSCE/OSCE, to the effect that the Greek Cypriot Administration does not represent the whole of Cyprus, as it has no authority on the territory which is under the jurisdiction of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
Turkey's above-mentioned reservation also applies to the information provided in the Policing Profiles of the Participating and Partner States section of POLIS under the heading "Cyprus".

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Links

Ministry of Internal Affairs - Turkey  Ministry of Internal Affairs - Turkey http://www.icisleri.gov.tr
Official website.

General Directorate of Security - Turkey  General Directorate of Security - Turkey http://www.egm.gov.tr
Official website.

General Command of Gendarmerie - Turkey  General Command of Gendarmerie - Turkey http://www.jandarma.tsk.mil.tr/
Official website, available in Turkish and English

Coast Guard Command – Turkey  Coast Guard Command – Turkey http://www.sgk.tsk.mil.tr/
Official website, available in Turkish and English

Undersecretariat of Customs - Turkey  Undersecretariat of Customs - Turkey http://www.gumruk.gov.tr
Official website, available in Turkish, English and French.

National Intelligence Organization - Turkey  National Intelligence Organization - Turkey http://www.mit.gov.tr
Official website, available in Turkish and English.

OSCE/ ODIHR Legislationline - Turkey  OSCE/ ODIHR Legislationline - Turkey http://www.legislationline.org/countries/country/50
Legislationline is a gratis internet-based legislative database published and maintained by the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR).

Last Updated: 28 February 2007

Also see: Armenia, Georgia, Greece, Bulgaria, Cyprus