This country profile was migrated from the legacy system and the new text is under consideration of the respective government authorities.
Policing overview: Policing activities in Belarus fall under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Other relevant bodies include the Ministry for Emergency Situations and the Presidential Guards.
Ministry of the Interior
Ministry of the Interior
The powers of the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Belarus in the area of policing are defined in the Police Act of the Republic of Belarus of 26 February 1991.
Among other things, the Ministry of the Interior:
sets the priorities for improving the organization and work of the police in the Republic;
takes measures to improve the legal provisions underlying police work, and develops and secures agreement on road safety standards for the Republic as a whole;
co ordinates the activities of all police authorities and divisions;
exercises operational control over police forces and resources when carrying out national and interterritorial measures to maintain law and order;
advises the police, provides technical assistance and carries out inspections;
organizes training for police personnel at the Ministry’s training establishments and formulates the job requirements for police personnel;
establishes and develops links and co operation channels with police authorities of other countries and with international organizations through treaties and agreements.
The Belarusian police is an armed government agency responsible for protecting the life, safety, rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of citizens, society and the State against criminal and other illegal activities.
The responsibilities of the police are to:
maintain public order;
ensure the safety of citizens and of their property as well as public safety;
prevent and suppress crimes and other offences;
detect crimes and pursue those who have committed them;
protect all forms of property from unlawful encroachments;
provide assistance, on the terms and in the manner established by the law, to citizens, government agencies and also enterprises, establishments and organizations by protecting their rights and by enabling them to perform their assigned duties;
carry out criminal sentences and administrative sanctions within the scope of its competence.
The Belarusian police consists of the criminal police, the public safety police, the special transport police and the organized crime and corruption police.
The judicial system
1. General information
The judicial system of the Republic of Belarus is based on the principles of territoriality and specialization. The establishment of extraordinary courts is prohibited. Judges are independent and subject only to the law.
The judicial system comprises the Constitutional Court, the law (general) courts and courts authorized to hear cases of an economic nature.
The law (general) courts include: district (municipal), intergarrison military and provincial (oblast) courts as well as the Minsk Municipal Court, the Belarusian military courts and the Supreme Court of the Republic of Belarus.
The courts authorized to hear cases of an economic nature include: the Supreme Economic Court of the Republic of Belarus, provincial economic courts and the Minsk Municipal Economic Court, all of which, within the scope of their competence, administer justice in business (economic) matters.
All court proceedings are conducted on the basis of the principle of territoriality. Appeals against district court rulings can be examined by a provincial court. The Supreme Court examines cassational appeals in connection with provincial or district court rulings. The Constitutional Court verifies that laws and other statutory instruments are in accordance with the Constitution.
The centralized system governing the prosecution authorities is headed by the Public Prosecutor, who is appointed by the President with the agreement of the upper house of Parliament.
The prosecutorial authorities system is based on the same principles as the judicial system discussed above, but differs from it in that it involves a number of interregional, specialized and military establishments.