This country profile was migrated from the legacy system and the new text is under consideration of the respective government authorities.
Policing overview: The main law enforcement agencies are the National Police, the Border Police and the Romanian Gendarmerie.
1. General information
The Romanian National Police is the country’s main civil law enforcement agency and reports to the Ministry of Administration and Interior.
2. Functions and missions
The Romanian National Police is the specialized state institution responsible for the protection of citizens’ fundamental rights and liberties and private and public property, as well as the prevention and identification of crimes and maintenance of public order and safety. Starting in 1990, the National Police underwent re-structuring to improve individual and collective safety, protect citizens’ legitimate rights, as well as other rights provided by international agreements signed by Romania as a partner state.
3. Structure and organization
The General Inspectorate of Romanian Police is the central unit of police, a legal entity with general territorial competences, which manages, guides, supports and controls the activity of the subordinate police units, investigates and analyzes very serious crimes related to organized crime, economic, financial or banking criminality, or to other crimes investigated by the Prosecutor’s Office of the Supreme Court of Justice. The organizational break-down of the General Inspectorate of Romanian Police includes general directorates, directorates, services and offices established by the order of the Minister of Administration and Interior.
For more detailed information, please visit the official website of the Romanian National Police via the Links section below.
1. General information
As for the geostrategical background, Romania manages 2070,6 km of the European external borders (border with Ukraine – 649,4 km, border with Moldova – 681,3 km, border with Serbia – 546,4 km, Black Sea Coast – 193,5 km.). Out of this amount, 1540 km are blue borders, while 530 km are land borders. There are 15 international airports on the Romanian territory.
The Romanian Border Police is a national wide body, under the direct authority of the Public Order and Safety Department, which is headed by a Secretary of State, subordinated to the Minister of Administration and Interior. It has the responsibility for the control of the state border and has exclusive competence in the field of checks over persons crossing the state border and the surveillance of the green and blue border.
The Romanian national border security model is based on the "four tiers model" of the Schengen Catalogue. External Borders control, removal and readmission.
2. Functions and missions
In its area of competence, the Romanian Border Police has as main tasks the following:
- surveillance and control at the Romanian state border crossing, prevention and counter of illegal migration and cross-border criminality in the competence area, as well as any offence regarding state border legal regime;
- protection of the life, corporal integrity and freedom of persons, the public and private property, other rights and legal interests of the citizens and communities;
- performing control of the documents when crossing the state border in the border crossing points opened 10 the international traffic, entering / leaving from free areas, local border traffic points and simplified crossing or in other places, according to the law;
- ensuring the correct and fluent flows of traffic of the persons and goods at border crossing points, together with other authorities having responsibility of control when crossing the state border, according to the law;
- performing control of the weapons, ammunitions, panoply and self defense weapons, explosive materials or toxic and radioactive substances at the state border crossing, according to the law,
- supervising the aerial space adjacent to the state border and territorial sea, through direct observation;
- enforcing the provisions of the treaties, agreements, conventions and protocols regarding the state border and control of the slate border, concluded by Romania with neighboring countries, or with other states or regional and international organizations;
- ensuring the surveillance and control of the border signs;
- organizing and carrying out co-operation activities with similar institutions of the neighboring countries, other states or community of states, in the specific activity areas, according to bi/multi lateral agreements in which Romania is part;
- identifying and investigating those persons who have infringed the law or are known to have the intention to break the state border legal regime, as well as other legal provisions in its competence, carrying on investigation on these criminal offences;
- gathering, stocking, processing, exchanging data and infonnation, with interested
public authorities in order to perform legal tasks, based on protocols, or with
similar institutions from other states based on Agreements, according to the police
- identifying offences and applying fines, according to the law;
- co-coordinating activities of the personnel from other institutions or economic agents carrying out their tasks at the state border crossing points, related to the crossing of the state border, and observing the respect of the law by all personnel within the border crossing point;
- ensuring the public order in the state border crossing points and, upon request from other state authorities, taking part in joint operations organized in localities of border area;
- taking part in activities of rescuing and evacuation of persons and goods endangered by accidents, calamities, catastrophes, together with other units within Ministry of Administration and lnterior, Ministry of Defense, civil protection or other authorities, as well as reducing the consequences of these events;
- taking measures together with territorial authorities for environment protection and border authorities of the neighboring countries in order to prevent ecological risks and to eliminate the effects, in case of environment accidents;
- performing any other task established by law;
- performing technical and forensic reports by specialists accredited at the level of the Romanian Border Police and in its own labs, according to the legal provisions in force.
3. Structure and organization
According to the provisions of the Schengen Catalogue (cap.1.4 Organizational structure), the Romanian Border Police has developed co-ordination structures of the specific activities, at central, regional and local levels.
At central level, the management structure is the General Inspectorate of Border Police, having territorial competence for the entire area of responsibility of the Romanian Border Police. It co-ordinates the activity of its subordinated structures and carries out activities of investigation in serious crimes in the field of border related offences such as illegal migration and cross-border crime.
Directly subordinated to the GlBP, there are some structures having specific attributions, as follows:
- The Center for Surveillance and Control of Airport Border Crossings having the headquarter in Otopeni BCP, has competences in coordinating the activity of Bucharest Henri Coanda, Bucharest Baneasa Aurel Vlaicu BCPs.
- The Operative Directorate for Maritime Ports having the headquarter in Constanta Harbor, has competences in preventing and countering illegal migration and cross-border crimes identified in the maritime and tourist harbours at the Black Sea: Constanta – Nord, Constanta – Sud (Agigea). Mangalia, Midia Maritime Port, Tomis and Belona Marina.
- 4 training institutions:
– "Avram Iancu" Border Police Agents School in Oradea, Bihor County (providing 2 years training for future border police agents, as well as continuous training of border police agents in Schengen-related areas, foreign languages, IT&C and use of databases),
– Basic and Further Training School in Constanta, Constanta County (continuous training
of border police agents),
– Basic and Further Training School in Iasi, Iasi County (training of border police agents
in the area of surveillance and control of the state border according to the Schengen
– Training School in Orsova, Mehedinti County (training of border police agents in the
area of surveillance and control of the state border according to the Schengen acquis).
- Contact structures subordinated to the GlBP, which are one of the most effective channels of co-operation in border issues between two or several states, as the main purpose of these structures, is the development of data and intelligence exchange, in countering cross-border crime.
Also regarding the sea border – there are 2 BP naval groups located at the EU external border, they represent the maritime component of the Border Police, organized on the Black Sea shore. They carry out their attributions within the territorial waters, contiguous area and economic exclusive area.
At the local level, there are 78 Border Crossing Points (BCP) subordinated to the BPS. According to the relevant legislation, a BCP is a certain place organized and authorized by the Government of Romania for crossing the state border. Within every BCP, the RBP has a Border Police Point (BPP), divided into two categories from an organizational point of view, as follows:
- structures within the border police sectors,
- structures unfolding their activity at the level of the international airports, both fulfilling the attributions related to the specific control of the state border crossings.
4. Staff data
After the gradual transformation of border policemen posts hired on the basis of a contract into police agents posts, starting 1st of October 2006, the Romanian Border Police has three categories of personnel, namely: officers, agents and personnel hired on the basis of a contract.
Thus, in 2006, the process of turning the posts of border policemen hired on the basis of contract into agent posts was completed. This activity started in 2003 on the basis of an action plan approved by the management of the Ministry of Administration and Interior, object provided in the Schengen Action Plan and the Country Report for the years 2003 - 2004.
In order to cover the personnel deficit, in 2006, 3.250 positions were filled in (384 officers, 2.530 agents, 336 personnel employed on the basis of a contract), in 2007, 1.264 positions have been filled in, thus:
- 51 positions, by graduates of the Police Academy "Alexandru loan Cuza";
- 1.097 by the graduates of the Training School for the Border Police Agents "Avram lancu" Oradea;
- 116 positions by the specialists recruited from external sources.
1. General information
The Romanian Gendarmerie is the state’s specialized institution, with military status, within the Ministry of Administration and Interior which, according to the law, is tasked to protect public order and security, citizens’ rights and fundamental liberties, public and private property, to prevent and detect crime, to protect the state’s fundamental institutions and to combat terrorist acts.
2. Functions and missions
The Romanian Gendarmerie, through its specialized structures, is tasked to:
- ensure public order during meetings, marches, demonstrations, processions, strikes, promotional and commercial activities, cultural events, sports, religious events, memorial activities and also other similar activities carried out in public areas and involving large crowds;
- re-establish public order when it has been disturbed by any kind of illegal actions;
- prevent and detect crimes in mountain resorts and along tourist routes, as well as on the Black Sea coast, in the Danube Delta, in resorts or in other operational interest areas;
- maintain public order during official visits or during other activities in which Romanian or foreign high officials take part, on Romanian territory, in the competence area and in the places where the activities are carried out;
- at the competent authorities' request, to perform hot pursuit missions for fugitives, deserters and other persons on whom there is information and data that they are intending to commit or have committed crimes, fugitives from preventive custody or from prison;
- participate in anti-terrorist missions under the Gendarmerie responsibility or in missions to capture persons using fire arms or other means that put the safety of persons, goods, values and special transports in danger;
- ensure the safety and protection of the goods, objectives and other valuable assets of the MoAI;
- ensure the safety and protection of transports of certain valuables as well as of fire arms, ammunition, explosives, drugs, toxic material, radioactive and other dangerous substances;
- in co-operation with other State institutions, to participate in preventing and combating terrorist acts on Romanian territory;
- together with other State institutions, to participate in the surveillance, control and protection of wild animals subject to the hunting and natural fishing funds, the forest and environment protection fund by specific measures of preventing and countering any infringements of the pertaining legal provisions;
- participate in the protection of classified mail enroute through Romanian territory;
- assist in limiting and eliminating consequences of natural, technological, environmental or other complex disasters;
- participate in missions outside the Romanian territory with its own staff helping with training activities, assisting international forces in their performance of certain missions in conflict and crisis management; also to participate in counseling, assistance, training and control activities of the local order forces or of these forces substitution of their domains of activity. While performing these missions, the Gendarmerie staff enjoys the rights provided by law for military personnel performing missions abroad;
- detect and sanction contraventions, according to the law;
- draft the documents necessary to start judicial procedures relating to offences detected during their specific missions.
3. Structure and organization
The Romanian Gendarmerie has the following organizational structure:
- General Inspectorate of the Romanian Gendarmerie - represents the central unit of the Romanian Gendarmerie, with legal status and general territorial competence, managed by an Inspector General, appointed by the Minister of Administration and Interior;
- Bucharest General Directorate of Gendarmerie - is directly subordinate to the General Inspectorate of the Romanian Gendarmerie and is responsible for planning, organization, management and achievement of specific missions and fulfillment of attributions within gendarmerie jurisdiction in Bucharest;
- Special Intervention Brigade of Gendarmerie - is directly subordinate to the General Inspectorate of the Romanian Gendarmerie and has general territorial competence, tasked to ensure and re-establish public order, to protect fundamental State institutions and deal with serious threats against them;
- 41 County Gendarmerie Inspectorates - directly subordinate to the General Inspectorate and dedicated to planning, organization, management and achievement of specific missions and fulfillment of attributions within gendarmerie jurisdiction in an appropriate territorial area of competence, equal with a county territory;
- 8 Gendarmerie Mobile Groups - subordinate to the General Inspectorate of the Romanian Gendarmerie, tasked to re-establish and ensure public order and to combat crime in their jurisdiction area;
- Educational military institutions - in charge of continuous and special training of the Romanian Gendarmerie staff;
- Specialized units and sub-units - may act in any area of the country, other than that of their permanent responsibility, dealing with the existing operative situation and acting according to the law.