Policing and Border Security and Management Overview
The responsibility for law enforcement in Ukraine traditionally rests with two government agencies: the Ministry of the Interior and the Security Service. Other bodies authorized to conduct criminal investigations are the Foreign Intelligence Service and the Military Intelligence Service.
In accordance with the Law “on National Security” the structure of the security and defence sector includes: the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine, the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the State Special Transport Service, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, the National Guard of Ukraine, the National Police of Ukraine, the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine, the State Migration Service of Ukraine, the State Emergency Service of Ukraine, The Security Service of Ukraine, the State Security Guard of Ukraine, the State Service for Special Communications and Information Protection of Ukraine, the Apparatus of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine, intelligence authorities of Ukraine, central executive authority, which forms and implements the state military-industrial policy.
The bodies authorized to conduct criminal investigations are National Police, Security Service, State Bureau of Investigation, National Anti-Corruption Bureau, Penitentiary Service and the authority which oversees compliance with tax legislation.
Police services in Ukraine are provided by the National Police, which is coordinated by the Cabinet of Ministers (government) through the Minister of Internal Affairs of Ukraine. The Head of the National Police is appointed and dismissed by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on the proposal of the Prime Minister of Ukraine in accordance with the proposals of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Ukraine.
Counter Terrorism Overview
The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine decides on arrangements for combating terrorism in Ukraine and on the necessary forces, means and resources. The central executive bodies also take part in combating terrorism within their authority. The Security Service of Ukraine fights against terrorism by conducting investigative measures aimed at prevention, detection and suspension of terrorist activity including at the international level; obtaining and collecting information about foreign and international organisations; using technical searching measures in telecommunication systems and channels that can be used by terrorists exceptionally with the aim to obtain warning information in case of terrorist attack threat; conducting counter-terrorist operations, coordination of counter-terrorism task forces activity through the Anti-Terrorist Center (ATC) at the Security Service of Ukraine within its authority; conducting of pre-trial investigation in cases connected with terrorist activity; ensuring protection of Ukrainian institutions abroad, their employees and members of their families from terrorist threats in interaction with intelligence service of Ukraine.
The Security Service of Ukraine, the National Police and the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine are tasked to strengthen the counter-terrorism and counter-intelligence regime, border control and protection of the state border, take measures to intensify actions to remove unregistered weapons from circulation, effectively counter armed crime, smuggling weapons, ammunition, explosives and their illicit trafficking.
Cyber/ICT Security Overview
Cybersecurity is an integral part of the National Security of Ukraine; the President of Ukraine coordinates activities in cyber security sphere through the National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine headed by the President of Ukraine. The National Cyber Security Coordination Centre as the working agency of the National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine, which coordinates and monitors activities of the security and defence sector entities involved in ensuring cybersecurity and makes proposals on the formation and refinement of the Cyber Security Strategy of Ukraine to the President of Ukraine.
The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine ensures the formation and implementation of the national cybersecurity policy, protection of human and civil rights and freedoms, national interests of Ukraine in cyberspace, fight against cybercrime; operation of the national cybersecurity system, providing it with the necessary forces, means and resources; specifies requirements and ensures operation of the information security audit system at the facilities of critical infrastructure (except critical infrastructure facilities in the banking system of Ukraine).
The main entities (actors) of National cybersecurity system are the State Service of Special Communications and Information Protection of Ukraine, the National Police of Ukraine, the Security Service of Ukraine, the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine and the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the intelligence agencies, the National Bank of Ukraine.
Ministry of the Internal Affairs
Functions and missions
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine is the central executive authority, which ensures the formation and implementation of state policy in the following areas:
- ensuring the protection of human rights and freedoms, the interests of society and the state, combating crime, maintaining public safety and the rule of law, as well as providing police services;
- protection of the state border of Ukraine and protection of the sovereign rights of Ukraine in its exclusive (marine) economic zone;
- civil protection, protection of population and territories from emergency situations and prevention of emergencies, emergency response, rescue, fire suppression, fire and technological safety, operation of emergency rescue services, as well as hydrometeorological activities;
- migration (immigration and emigration), in particular, counteraction to irregular (illegal) migration, citizenship, registration of individuals, in particular refugees and other categories of migrants determined by the legislation.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine is chaired by the Minister of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, who is appointed by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Parliament) upon a proposal of the Prime Minister of Ukraine.
The National Police, State Border Service, Service Center of the Ministry of the Interior Affairs, National Guard, State Migration Service and State Emergency Service are coordinated by the Cabinet of Minister through the Minister of Internal Affairs.
The MoI develops according to the priorities defined by the Development Strategy of the bodies of the system of MOI until 2020 which are the following:
- Safe environment
Creation of a safe environment for people's lives, provided with the needs of the population focused on the activities of the bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, their rapid and competent response to emergency situations and events that threaten personal or public security, their prevention and active participation of citizens.
- Countering Crime
Strengthening public safety and law and order in the state, through the implementation of preventive programs and capacity building of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in countering crime.
- Human Rights
Minimizing the violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the activities of the bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, ensuring rapid access of people to effective mechanisms for the restoration of violated rights.
- Integrated Border and balanced migration policy
Strengthening the security of the state border and adherence to the established migration regime, based on an integrated approach and taking into account the actual threats to national security and local needs.
- Quality and accessibility of services
Formation of stable and highly professional personnel of the Ministry of Internal Affairs system that is capable of responding adequately to the challenges and threats in the area of internal affairs. Ensuring the functioning of high-quality and accessible services of the bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, by observing standards that meet the expectations of citizens.
- Effective Governance
Functioning of a steady, managed, technologically advanced MIA system capable of confronting contemporary challenges and threats. Introduction of effective mechanisms of democratic civilian control and cooperation with the public, which lead to the strengthening of national security.
Education / Training
There are 7 institutions of higher education within the Ministry’s system:
- National Academy of Internal Affairs (in Kyiv)
- Kharkiv National MIA University
- Dnipropetrovsk State MIA University
- Donetsk MIA Institute
- Lviv State MIA University
- Odessa State MIA University
- Luhansk State MIA University
In addition, there are:
- National Academy of National Guard (in Kharkiv),
- National Academy of State Border Service named after Bohdan Khmelnitslyi (in Khmelnitskyi),
- National University of Civil Protection I (in Kharkiv),
- Lviv State University for Life Safety,
- Patrol Police Academy.
All of these institutions of higher education are subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior Affairs and are overseen by the Deputy Minister for Internal Affairs for Personnel and Security Matters.
State Border Service personnel are trained at the Khmelnytsky National Academy of the State Border Service of Ukraine (in the town of Khmelnytskyi) and also at the training centres for junior specialists located in the towns of Orshanets, Velyki Mosty and Izmail.
According to the Law “On National Security” of Ukraine” democratic civilian control over security and defense sector is implemented by the President of Ukraine; the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Parliament); the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine; the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, executive bodies and local self-government bodies; judicial control; public control.
Citizens who believe that their rights, freedoms or legitimate interests are violated by decisions, actions, inactivity of the agencies of the security and defence sector or their officials, have the right to appeal to the court, the Ombudsman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, to use any other protection mechanisms rights and freedoms envisaged by the legislation of Ukraine.
In addition, every law enforcement agency has its own internal security and special investigation unit, which is charged with conducting internal inquiries into complaints against the staff of that agency.
Functions and missions
The National Police of Ukraine, established in August 2015, is a central executive body and directed and coordinated by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine through the Minister of Internal Affairs in accordance with the law.
The tasks of the National Police are to provide police services in the following areas:
- public safety and public order;
- security and protection of human rights and freedoms, as well as the interests of society and the state;
- crime prevention;
- provision of assistance services to persons who, for personal, economic, social reasons or as a result of emergencies need such assistance within the limits defined by law.
Structure and organization
The National Police has a Central Office (Main Department), transregional units and 24 Main Regional Departments.
Central Office consists of:
- The Head’s Office
- Strategic Investigations Department
- Criminal Operatives Department (within the Criminal Police)
- Criminal Intelligence Department (within the Criminal Police)
- Counter-Trafficking Department (within the Criminal Police)
- Department on Combating Drug-Related Crimes (within the Criminal Police)
- Surveillance Service Department (within the Criminal Police)
- Criminal Analysis Department (within the Criminal Police)
- Technical Operations Department (within the Criminal Police)
- Department for Hazardous Materials Actions (within the Criminal Police)
- Preventive Activity Department
- Department of the Tactics and Rapid Action Corps (“KORD”) (within the Special Operations Police)
- International Police Cooperation Department
- Main Investigation Department
- Analytical Support and Operations Department
- IT Department
- Legal Department
- Human Resource Department
- Communication Department
- Finance and Accounting Department
- Internal Audit Department
- Property Management Department
- Telecommunication Department
- Registry and Document Securing Department
- Department of Explosives Ordnance Disposal Service
- Department of Secrecy and Technical Protection of Information
- Human Rights Department
- Anti-Corruption and Lustration Department
- Water and Air Police Department
- Operative Support Department
- Special Communications Unit
- Police Dog Service Unit
- Pension Sector
The transregional units are:
- Patrol Police Department
- Internal Security Department (within the Criminal Police)
- Cyber-Police Department (within the Criminal Police)
- Department on Combating Financial Crimes (within the Criminal Police)
- Guard Police Department
Functions and missions
The National Guard of Ukraine (NSU) is a military formation with law enforcement functions. It is a part of the system of Ministry of Interior of Ukraine and is designed to fulfil the tasks related to protection and safeguarding the life, rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of citizens, society and the state from criminal and other wrongful infringements, and also maintenance of public order and public security, as well as to ensure, in coordination with law enforcement agencies, the national security and protection of national borders, stopping terrorist activities and activities of illegitimate paramilitary or armed troops (groups), terrorist organizations, organized groups and criminal organizations.
The uniqueness of the National Guard of Ukraine is in the fact that it performs law enforcement functions during the peacetime, stabilization tasks at the crisis period and military functions during the period of martial law.
- to protect the constitutional system of Ukraine and its territorial integrity from violent attempts to transform them;
- to maintain public order and ensure protection of life, rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of citizens;
- to contribute to the maintenance of public security and public order during meetings, rallies, marches, demonstrations and other public events in case of risks to public health and safety;
- to provide security guard support to public authorities, the list of which shall be determined by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, and contribute to public security guard activities to public authorities and officials;
- to protect nuclear facilities, nuclear materials, nuclear wastes and other sources of radioactive emissions in public ownership, as well as critical infrastructure, the list of which shall be determined by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine;
- to protect special cargoes, the list of which shall be determined by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine;
- to protect diplomatic missions and consulates of foreign countries, as well as representative offices of international organizations in Ukraine;
- to protect central bases of logistics support of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine;
- to be involved in activities to cease armed conflicts and other acts of provocation at national borders, as well as activities to prevent mass crossing of national borders from neighbouring countries;
- to participate in special operations to neutralize armed offenders, to stop activity of illegitimate paramilitary or armed gangs, organized groups and criminal organizations inside Ukraine, as well as measures related to counterterrorism activities;
- to be involved in riot control efforts if there exists risk of violence against citizens;
- to be engaged in restoration of public order in case of interethnic and interconfessional conflicts, unblock or bring an end to unlawful acts in case of seizure of critical public facilities or areas, where public safety may be put at risk and regular activities of public authorities and local governance may be hindered;
- to be involved in the maintenance or restoration of public order in case of particularly severe emergencies of man-made or natural character (natural disasters, accidents, particularly severe fire, usage of means of destruction, pandemic, panzootic etc.) where pose a threat to public health and safety;
- to participate in re-establishment of constitutional order in case of attempted seizure of power or violent transformation of the constitutional system, as well as reestablishment of public authorities and local governance activity;
- to be involved in activities to bring an end to wrongful acts of the gangs of convicts, as well as first response to such acts in the remand and correctional facilities.
The National Guard of Ukraine is a part of the system of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine.
Commander-in-Chief of the National Guard of Ukraine is subordinated to the Minister of Internal Affairs. He is assigned by the President of Ukraine on the proposal of the Minister of Internal Affairs.
The National Guard of Ukraine consists of:
- The Main Department (Kyiv);
- Territorial Commands: Eastern, Northern, Western, Southern, Central, Crimean;
- Directly subordinated units;
- Educational institution;
- Training centres;
- Supply units.
The NGU units are located throughout Ukraine, according to the areas of responsibility (for a rapid response).
All NGU units are formed according to their functional purpose, such as:
- Operational units;
- Public order protection units;
- Convoy units;
- Special purpose units;
- Key infrastructure protection units;
- Embassies and consular institutions protection units;
- Aviation units.
Education and training
The National Guard of Ukraine pays utmost attention to the qualified and pertinent training of the personnel and its career-long professional development. Taking into consideration the fact that the National Guard of Ukraine is military formation with law-enforcement functions, the training covers both military and law-enforcement expertise and ensures that NGU members meet the applicable occupational requirements (public order, special operations etc).
Currently, the system of professional training undergoes significant transformation and reform. And this transformation is going under the guidance of the international partners.
The National Guard of Ukraine is a component of the security and defence sector of Ukraine. The political and administrative leadership of NGU is carried out by the Minister of Internal Affairs of Ukraine. During the Martial Law, the National Guard of Ukraine is subordinate to the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine to fulfil tasks of state defence.
Functions and missions
The Security Service of Ukraine (SBU), is Ukraine's law-enforcement authority and main government security agency in the areas of counterintelligence activity and combating terrorism.
According to its provisions, the Security Service of Ukraine is responsible for:
- the counterintelligence protection of state sovereignty, constitutional order, territorial integrity, economic, scientific and technical, defense capabilities, information security of Ukraine, vital interests of the state, rights and freedoms of the citizens from foreign secret services intrusions, separate organizations, groups and persons, which pose a threat to the national security of Ukraine;
- counteraction to intelligence, reconnaissance and sabotage activities and other illegal activities of the foreign secret services, separate organizations, groups and persons, which pose a threat to the national security of Ukraine;
- counterintelligence protection of state authorities, scientific and technical, defence capabilities, defence-industry and transport complexes, national system of telecommunications and its facilities, critical infrastructure facilities of strategic importance;
- prevention, detection, and solving of crimes against peace and human security, which are committed in the cyberspace; taking counterintelligence, operational and search measures, directed at combating cyberterrorism and cyberespionage; counteraction to cybercrimes, possible results of which pose a threat to the vital interests of Ukraine; investigation of cyber incidents and cyber attacks on the state electronic information resources, the information, which is to be protected according to the law, critical information infrastructure and its separate facilities; testing of preparedness to protect critical informational infrastructure facilities from possible cyber attacks and cyber incidents; ensuring of response to the computer incidents in the state security sphere;
- taking of complex administrative law, organizational, operational and search, operational and technical actions on counteraction to terrorist activities, including international, and terrorism financing;
- counteraction to crimes, which pose a threat to state security of Ukraine (with further staged optimization as required by law of the Security Service of Ukraine responsibilities in this area);
- detecting and counteraction to transnational and interregional organized criminal groups, combating signs of the organized crimes in different areas (with further staged optimization as required by law of the Security Service of Ukraine responsibilities in this sphere);
- counteraction to special information operations and influences of the foreign secret services, organizations, groups and persons;
- combating trafficking and illegal use of eavesdropping equipment;
- conducting information and analytical activities in the interests of the state security of Ukraine;
- prevention of crimes against state security of Ukraine.
The SBU reports to the President of Ukraine and informs the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on the results of its activity. The publication of the results of the SBU bodies and units’ activities is carried out according to the statutory requirements.
Information about the organization, plans, content, forms, methods, means, financing and logistics support, results of counterintelligence activities, scientific and research developments concerning providing national security, and about individuals, who cooperate or have previously cooperated on confidential basis with the SBU bodies and units which perform counterintelligence activity, summarized data about the personnel of these bodies and units is state secret and is to be protected in accordance with the Law of Ukraine “On the State Secret”.
The access to the mentioned information can be given in cases and order defined by the SBU according to statutory requirements. It is forbidden to publish or disclose gathered data and information concerning performing or non-performing any counterintelligence activities and measures regarding certain person until a decision by the results of such activity or measures is taken.
Structure and organization
The structure of the SBU consists of the SBU Headquarters, its regional offices, military counterintelligence bodies, military units and educational, scientific and research and other institutions. The organizational structure of the SBU is determined by the President of Ukraine.
The Anti-Terrorist Center at the SBU is tasked with organization and conduct of anti-terrorist operations and coordination of activities of other agencies, that counter-terrorism or are involved in anti-terrorist operations. The statute about the Anti-Terrorist Center at the SBU is approved by the President of Ukraine upon the presentation of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.
Operational and investigation activities, as well as the counterintelligence activities, are performed overtly and covertly. Overt actions include the use of open (official) forms and methods of work in providing national security. Covert actions are performed with the attraction of individuals, who confidentially cooperate with the SBU bodies and units and the use of operational, technical and special capabilities. The procedure of using secret capabilities while performing operational activity is determined by the SBU legal acts based on the laws of Ukraine.
Anti-Terrorist Center of the Security Service of Ukraine
The Anti-Terrorist Center is tasked with:
- development of conceptual foundations and programs to combat terrorism, recommendations aimed at increasing the effectiveness of measures to identify and eliminate the causes and conditions conducive to terrorist acts and other crimes committed for a terrorist purpose;
- collection, generalization, analysis and evaluation of information on the state and trends of the spread of terrorism in Ukraine and abroad;
- organization and conducting of antiterrorist operations and coordination of activities of actors engaged in combating terrorism or involved in specific anti-terrorist operations;
- organization and conducting command-and-staff and tactical-special exercises and training;
- Participation in the preparation of draft international agreements of Ukraine, preparation and submission of proposals in accordance with the established procedure for improving the legislation of Ukraine in the field of combating terrorism, financing of counter-terrorism actors, antiterrorist operations, taking measures to prevent, detect and terminate terrorist activities;
- interaction with special services, law enforcement agencies of foreign countries and international organizations on the fight against terrorism.
- The Anti-Terrorist Center under the SB of Ukraine in accordance with the Regulation is a legal entity, has an independent balance sheet, accounts with the State Treasury of Ukraine, forms, seals and stamps with their name, as well as a seal with the image of the State Emblem of Ukraine. The Center is held at the expense of funds provided by a separate line in the State Budget of Ukraine, as well as other sources provided by the laws of Ukraine.
The Anti-Terrorist Center at the Security Council of Ukraine is headed by a leader appointed by the President of Ukraine from the Deputy Head of the Security Service of Ukraine.
Structurally, the Anti-Terrorism Center consists of:
- the Directorate (leader, first deputy and three deputies, one of whom is the head of the staff)
- the Interdepartmental Coordination Commission
- Headquarters, as well as coordination groups and their headquarters with the regional bodies of the Security Service of Ukraine.
Education / Training
The SBU National Academy provides supplementary postgraduate training for operatives in the area of “State security”, entailing a one year course of instruction or a two year course involving advanced foreign language training and leading to the academic title of “specialist”, as well as correspondence courses for lawyers along the lines of higher education and advanced training for SBU personnel.
The SBU investigator training institute as part of the Yaroslav Mudry National Law Academy, which enjoys the status of an independent academic establishment, offers full-time five-year training courses for SBU investigators.
State Border Service
Functions and Missions
State Border Guard Service of Ukraine (SBGS) is the border guard of Ukraine. It is an independent law enforcement agency of special assignment, the head of which is subordinated to the President of Ukraine.
The State Border Guard Service of Ukraine is charged with the tasks of ensuring the inviolability of state borders and protection of sovereign rights of Ukraine within its exclusive (maritime) economic zone.
Principal functions of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine are as follows:
- policing Ukraine’s state border on land, sea, rivers, lakes, and other water bodies in order to prevent any illegal change of its line and to enforce the regime of the state border and the borderline regime;
- exercising border control and allowing passage across the border, according to the established procedure, of individuals, vehicles, cargos and other properties as well as detecting and stopping illegal movement thereof;
- safeguarding Ukraine’s sovereign rights in its exclusive (maritime) economic zone, and supervising the exercise of rights and the meeting of obligations in that zone by other states, Ukrainian and foreign legal and natural persons, and international organizations;
- carrying out intelligence, information and analytical, and operational criminal investigation activities to ensure protection of Ukraine’s state border in accordance with the Law of Ukraine on Intelligence Bodies in Ukraine and the Law of Ukraine on Operational Criminal Investigation;
- participating in the fight against organized crime and counteracting illegal migration at Ukraine’s state border as well as within the bounds of the border districts controlled;
- participating in state protection of the places of permanent and temporary stay of the President of Ukraine and officials listed in the Law of Ukraine on State Protection of Public Authorities and Officials of Ukraine;
- guarding Ukraine’s diplomatic institutions abroad;
- coordinating the activities of military formations and relevant law-enforcement bodies related to protection of Ukraine’s state border as well as coordinating the activities of state bodies that exercise various types of control over crossing of Ukraine’s state border or take part in enforcement of the state border regime, the borderline regime, and the regime at Ukrainian state border checkpoints.
Structure and organization
The Administration of the SBGS is a central executive body whose activities are directed and coordinated by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine through the Minister of Internal Affairs and which implements state policy in the field of protection of the state border and protection of the sovereign rights of Ukraine in its exclusive (maritime) economic zone. It is governed by the Constitution and laws of Ukraine, decrees of the President of Ukraine and resolutions of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.
There are also Regional administrations of the SBGS:
- Eastern Regional Administration
- Northern Regional Administration
- Western Regional Administration
- Southern Regional Administration
- Azov-Black Sea Regional Administration
- Donetsk-Lugansk Regional Administration
- Regional Administration of Maritime Security
Education and training
There are 4 educational institutions that train officers for State Border Service:
- Khmelnitsky National Academy of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine;
- Ihor Momot Main Training Center for personnel of the SBGS (location: Orchanets);
- Canine Training Center (location: Velyki Mosty);
- Maritime Training Center (location: Izmail).
State Migration Service
The State Migration Service of Ukraine (SMS) is a central executive agency falling under the steering and coordination of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine through the Minister of Internal Affairs. SMS implements national policy in such areas as migration (immigration and emigration), including combating irregular (illegal) migration, citizenship, registration of individuals, refugees and other categories of migrants defined in law.
SMS performance is guided by the Constitution and laws of Ukraine, Decrees of the President of Ukraine, Resolutions of the Verkhovna Rada adopted in accordance with the Constitution and laws of Ukraine, acts of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and other legislative instruments.
SMS core tasks are as follows:
- to implement national policy in areas such as migration (immigration and emigration), including combating irregular (illegal) migration, citizenship, registration of individuals, refugees and other categories of migrants defined in law;
- to present proposals to the Minister of Internal Affairs regarding the formulation of national policy in areas such as migration (immigration and emigration), including combating irregular (illegal) migration, citizenship, registration of individuals, refugees and other categories of migrants defined in law.
State Service of Special Communications and Information Protection of Ukraine
The State Service of Special Communications and Information Protection of Ukraine (Derzhspetszviazok, SCIP) is an entity of the security and defence sector of Ukraine.
The SCIP is one of the main entities (actors) of National cybersecurity system and according to the Law of Ukraine on the Basic Principles of Ensuring the Cyber Security of Ukraine fulfils the following key tasks:
- ensures formation and implementation of the national policy on protection of state information resources in cyberspace;
- ensures information security, since the requirement of information protection was imposed by law;
- ensures cyber protection of critical information infrastructure;
- ensures state control in these spheres;
- coordinates the cyber defence activities of other cybersecurity entities;
- ensures the development and operation of the National Telecommunication Network, implementation of the organizational and technical cyber defence model;
- carries out organizational and technical measures to prevent, detect and respond to cyber incidents and cyber-attacks and to mitigate any effects of them;
- informs about cyber threats and appropriate protection methods against them;
- ensures the implementation of the information security audit of the critical infrastructure facilities (objects), sets requirements for information security auditors and determines the procedure for verification and validation of auditors’ qualifications;
- coordinates, organizes and conducts security and safety audit to define vulnerability of communications and technological systems of critical infrastructure;
- ensures the functioning of the State Cyber Defence Centre, the Computer Emergency Response Team of Ukraine CERT-UA.
The Computer Emergencies Response Team of Ukraine CERT-UA forms a part of the State Cyber Defence Centre of the SCIP and fulfils the following key tasks:
- accumulation and analysis of cyber incidents data, maintenance of the national register of cyber incidents;
- providing owners of objects subjected to cyber protection with practical help in preventing detecting and eliminating the effects of cyber incidents at these assets;
- organizing and conducting practical seminars on cyber defence issues for the entities of the national cybersecurity system and owners of objects subjected to cyber protection;
- drafting recommendations on counteraction to modern types of cyber-attacks and cyber threats and placing them on its official website;
- cooperation with the law enforcement agencies, providing them with timely information on cyber-attacks;
- cooperation with the foreign and international organizations on cyber incident response, in particular through participation in the Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams (FIRST) with an annual membership fees payment;
- interaction with the Ukrainian computer emergency response teams, as well as with other enterprises, institutions and organizations, regardless of their form of ownership, engaged in activities related to the cyberspace security;
- processing information received from citizens about cyber incidents at assets which need cyber protection;
- assistance to government authorities, local government, military units established in accordance with the law, enterprises, institutions and organizations regardless the form of ownership, as well as the Ukraine’s citizens for solving cyber defence and counteraction to cyber threats.
Criminal Justice System
The judicial system of Ukraine consists of three levels of courts of general jurisdiction:
- 142 local general courts;
- court of appeal, including regional courts of appeal and courts of appeal in the city of Kyiv;
- The Supreme Court, the highest court within the system of courts of general jurisdiction, conducting the review regarding unequal application of the rules of substantive law by the cassation courts and subject to cases when international judicial institution the jurisdiction of which is recognized by Ukraine has established the violation of international obligations by Ukraine.
The Public Prosecution Service of Ukraine constitutes a unified system that shall, in line with the procedures set hereby, perform functions established by the Constitution of Ukraine with the aim of protecting human rights and freedoms, common interests of the society and the state.
The Public Prosecution Service shall perform the following functions:
- supporting the prosecution in court on behalf of the state;
- representation of interests of an individual or the state in court in the cases stipulated by this Law;
- supervision over observance of laws by the authorities carrying out detective operations, inquiries and pre-trial investigation;
- supervision over observance of laws in the enforcement of court judgments delivered in criminal cases, as well as in application of other coercive measures related to restraint of individual personal liberty.