This country profile was migrated from the legacy system and the new text is under consideration of the respective government authorities.
Policing overview: The name of the National Police is "Policja" in Polish.
1. Functions and missions
Pursuant to Art. 1 of the Police Act of 6 April 1990, the Polish police is a uniformed and armed force serving the community and intended to protect people’s safety and maintain law and order. Its fundamental duties include:
protecting people’s lives, health and material possessions against unlawful attempts in breach of these values;
protecting law and order, including maintenance of order in public places and on public transport, as well as on public roads and waterways;
initiating and organizing activities aimed to prevent crime and misdemeanors, as well
as any situations or behaviours that lead to crime, and to co-operate in this respect with state authorities, local self-government bodies and community organizations;
detecting crimes and offences and prosecuting the perpetrators;
supervising municipal guards and specialized armed security services within the scope defined in separate regulations;
controlling compliance with public order and administrative regulations related to public activities or applicable in public places;
co-operating with police forces of other states and their international associations, based on international agreements and conventions, as well as separate regulations.
2. Structure and organization
The National Police Headquarters, the organizational unit through which the Chief Commander of Police implements objectives specified in the Police Act and other Acts of Parliament, consists of 18 organizational units, which plan, organize, co-ordinate, supervise and monitor the implementation of its statutory duties by the Polish police.
The Provincial Chiefs of Police and the Metropolitan Chief of Police report to the Chief Commander of Police. Police Headquarters reflect the country’s division into 16 provinces, and its jurisdiction covers the whole provincial territory.
The Metropolitan Chief of Police performs his/her duties with the help of the Metropolitan Police Headquarters within the territory specified in the Act. His/her duties and competencies over the relevant territory correspond to the tasks and competencies of the Provincial Chief of Police.
For further information please see the organization chart of the Polish police in the Attachments section.
3. Staff data
Poland has, on average, one police officer for each 380 inhabitants. The percentage of commissioned officers is 17.4%, ensigns 27.7%, non-commissioned officers 34.1%, and constables 20.8%.
The majority of Polish police officers are under the age of 40. They account for over 71% of the total policing staff. The majority have secondary education (77%), with 20% having tertiary education, and only 3% with vocational education. Over 10% of police officers are women who assume managerial positions at all organizational levels throughout the police, from the position of the Head of the Bureau in the National Police Headquarters to executive positions in local police headquarters and police stations.
Education / Training
1. General information
The characteristic feature of the police officers’ training process in Poland is its modular and alternating character at all training levels. Theoretical training is alternated with periods of acquiring specific police skills by performing practical tasks in the field.
2. Basic training
Basic training of Polish police officers is geared towards the acquisition of clearly specified skills. Apart from theoretical know-how, police officers acquire and improve their practical skills upon completion of training. During the training process, strong emphasis is also put on shaping police officer’s attitudes, such as discipline, integrity, commitment, responsibility, courage and other attitudes.
Basic training is conducted in two phases. The first applies to officers in all police services, (i.e. prevention, criminal and logistical services) and takes 15 weeks. Upon completion of this phase, police officers in support services may be appointed to a specific position within the service.
3. Specialized training
The number of specializations depends on the type and character of the duties performed and training duration varies between 2 – 3 months. It ends with an exam confirming that the police officer has acquired specialized know-how and professional skills. About 1,000 officers graduate from the Centre each year.
4. Tertiary professional education
Tertiary professional education in the Police takes place at the Police Academy in Szczytno. During three-year course of study, the curriculum offers subjects in prevention and criminal service, law and social studies, and management studies.
Training provided in the Police Academy is profiled, taking into account the statutory division into different services (i.e. criminal and prevention service). The curriculum includes periodic long-term internships for students (e.g. alternate, modular training) and involves the delivery of lectures, classes and seminars from experienced police officers with practical experience in the field, who perform specific duties in police organizational units at various levels (so called ‘associated lecturers’).
Students submit a thesis and, following an exam, obtain a first degree diploma of tertiary professional studies (i.e. protection of public safety and order), and receive the title of certified officer. There are up to 300 graduates a year. The completion of tertiary professional studies is a prerequisite for promotion to the first-level commissioned officer’s ranks. Having completed their studies in the Police Academy, police officers may continue with supplementary studies in civil tertiary institutions.